Mongolia has been settled for millenia. Various nomadic peoples lived in the area south of the Baikal, and a number of western countries trace their roots to these lands.

The Mongolians united under the banner of Chingis Khan in the 13th century, paving the way for an expansion that made the Mongol Empire the largest land-based empire the world has ever seen. Though short-lived, the influence of their conquests changed the course of history as far afield as Hungary, Iran, India and Cambodia. 

However, over the centuries the Mongolian empire disintegrated and the Mongols came under the rule of the Manchu, a period that stretched up until the beginning of the 20th century.

In the 20th century, Mongolia gained independence, was broken up, occupied and regained independence. After World War II, Mongolia remained aligned with the Soviet Union, and adopted a socialist system. It remained one of the most closed countries in the world until the 1990s.

With the brake-up of the socialist system, deep political and economic reforms were launched in Mongolia to mark the beginning of the country's transition from a centrally planned system to a market economy. Mongolia adopted democratic norms and principles through introduction of multi-party, parliamentary system. In 1990s, for the first time in the country's history, democratically elected government approved the program for transition towards the market. Privatization of the state-owned property and the policy of liberalization were launched. Mongolia declared the policy of open doors. Since 1991, the government of Mongolia has been pursuing on a program of economic stabilization.

Traveling to Mongolia is an adventure. 3 million people live on an area more than twice the size of Texas, and half of them live in the capital city of Ulaanbaatar. Outside of the city, Mongolia is a vast country with the lowest population density of the world, and people still living mostly as Nomads, moving with their livestock in the rythm of the seasons.

Visitors should be prepared to experience amazing natural beauty, warmest hospitality and a silence at night only the big outdoors can offer.

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