Early hominid finds from the Paleolithic date from the territory of today's Georgia. It is believed that the early humans reached today's Georgia Europe and Asia.
In the sixth century BC The states of Colchis (Western Georgia), known from the Argonautensage and Iberia (Eastern Georgia), originated here. Later, the Romans dominated the country. In 327, Christianity became the state religion. The Romans were followed by the Persians, the Byzantines and the Arabs as conquerors.
Especially cruel in the history of Georgia were the times of Arab rule in VIII.-XI. Century, the numerous devastating raids of the Mongols in the XII.-XV. Century and the fierce fighting for the division of the Caucasus between the Ottoman Empire and Persia in the XVI.-XVIII. In between there were only a few quiet times, so in the XI.-XII. During the reign of King David the Builder and his great-granddaughter, Queen Tamara. This heyday was later known as the Golden Age of Georgia. The long-standing dependence on the Byzantine Empire was shaken off. In the days of Dawid the Builder and Queen Tamar, Georgia became the strongest power in Transcaucasia between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries.
There followed a Mongol invasion under Timur. In the 16th century, Georgia fell into the kingdoms of Imeretia, Kakheti and Kartli, as well as five principalities under Ottoman and Iranian influence.
After the signing of the so-called protection agreement (Georgievski tractate) in 1783 under pressure, dominance by the Russian Empire began. In the 19th century, all Georgian kingdoms were gradually abolished and Georgia was annexed by the Russian Empire.
In 1918, in a first attempt to regain independence, the Georgian Democratic Republic was proclaimed. However, this independence lasted only three years. In 1921, the Red Army occupied Georgia. As a result, the country was forced to join the Soviet Union. The most recent recovery of independence was possible only after the collapse of the USSR in 1991.
Occupied by numerous studies by international universities, UNESCO and the Guinness Book of World Records, Georgia is considered to be the cradle of wine culture with its more than 8,000-year-old winemaking tradition. Even today, the archaic-looking natural wines are brought to maturity according to ancient methods in the clay jugs Quevri.
Along with the revival of these wine-growing traditions since the regaining of independence, tourism and fashion are among the fastest growing industries, and of the three countries of the South Caucasus, Georgia is the most dynamically developing one. The location between the Orient and the Occident, between North and South, West and East can be felt here on every corner.
In addition, many international and around 300 German companies are currently active in Georgia. Including HeidelbergCement, Henkel and Caparol. With their local commitment, these are in the tradition of companies like "Siemens and Halske". In the 1860s, this company had the telegraph lines in the Caucasus. Tbilisi was the hub of the 10,000 km long London-Calcutta connection. The activities were led by Walter and later Otto Siemens who was also consul. Both were buried in Tbilisi. Werner von Siemens himself traveled to Georgia in 1890 for the third and last time.
The Georgian name Tbilisi means' hot spring ', from თბილი tbili, german, warm'. On the northeastern slopes of Mtabori hot, carbonated sulfuric spring water bubbles up to 46.5 ° C, which has been used for centuries in bathhouses.
Tradition has it that the Georgian king Wachtang I. Gorgassali killed a pheasant while hunting in a wooded valley. The animal fell into a hot spring and was even cooked by the bubbling water. The king was exploring the area closely. When he learned that there were many hot springs, he founded in the second half of the 5th century in this place the city of Tbilisi. The common name in Germany Tbilisi was already used in the 13th century by German cartographers, later by Marco Polo. It is used today except in German regularly in Turkish, Greek (Τιφλίδα) and Persian (تفلیس).
Theophanes of Byzantine was the first Byzantine writer to name the city for the year 571 Metropolis. In 591, after the end of the penultimate of the Roman-Persian Wars, Ostrom and the Sassanid Empire agreed that Mtskheta, the ancient capital of the Georgian kingdom, fell to Byzantium Tbilisi remained under the control of the Sassanids. In the 7th century, the city was conquered by the Arabs, then passed into Persian, Byzantine and 1068 Seljuki possession.
In 1121 it was again Georgian capital after the liberation by David the Builder and, thanks to the fortified position at the intersection of meanwhile seven European-Asian trade routes, it became one of the richest cities of the Middle Ages. Marco Polo reported that Georgia has a "glorious city called Tiflissi surrounded by suburbs and many fortresses".
In the 17th century, the city fell under Turkish rule, was recaptured and fortified by the Georgian king Irakli II. In the 18th century, the Turks seized the city again, but were expelled in 1735 by Nadir Shah of Persia, who used the Georgian king Theimuras. His son Irakli brought the city to high flowering.
In 1795 the Persians invaded Shah Aga Mohammed Khan in Georgia. After the Battle of Krtsanisi Tbilisi was completely destroyed and 22,000 people were abducted into slavery. In November 1799, the Russian Major General Lasarus occupied the city.
After the independence of the country in 1991 Tbilisi was again the capital of Georgia. A military coup against President Swiad Gamsakhurdia led between December 1991 and January 1992 to the Tbilisi war, in which the downtown around the Rustaveli Boulevard by tanks, artillery and missiles was severely damaged. In November 2003, the velvet revolution (Rose Revolution) took place in front of and in the parliament building, initiating a reformist turn in Georgia. The city developed rapidly and dynamically in the 2000s and 2010s. Roads and public transport have been modernized, and major public buildings are colorful at night and lit variously. Attractions are restored and are easily accessible.